CIHM ICIVIH Microfiche Collection de Series microfiches (l\1onographs) (monographies) Canadian Instituta for Historical Microraproductiont / Inttitut Canadian da microraproductions hiatoriquas Technical and Bibliographic Notes / Notes technique et bibliographlques The Institute has attempted to obtain the best original copy available for filming. Features of this copy which may be bibllographically unique, which may alter any of the Images in the reproduction, or which may significantly change the usual method of filming are checked below. D D D Coloured covers/ Couverture de couteur I I Covers damaged / ' — ' Couverture endommagis I I Covers restored an*or laminated / ' — ' Couverture restaur^ et/ou pellicula I I Cover title missing / Le IBre de couverture manque I I Coloured maps / Cartes geographiques en couleur I I Coloured ink (i.e. other than blue or black)/ Encfe de couleur (i.e. autre que bleue ou noire) I I Cokxjred plates and/or illustrations / ' — ' Planches et/ou illustrations en couleur I I Bound with other material / ' — ' Relie avec d'autres documents Only edition available / Seule editton disponible Tight binding may cause shadows or distortion along interior margin / La reliure serree peut causer de I'ombre ou de la distoisk)n le long de la marge interieure. Blank leaves added during rsstoratkms may appear within the text. Whenever possible, these tiave been omitted from filming / II se peut que certajnes pages blanches ajouttes lors d'une restauration apparaissent dans le texte, mais, kxsque cela ^tait pnsible, ces pages n'ont pas 616 fHmdes. L'Instltut a microfilm^ le mellleur examplaire qu'il lui a 6t6 possible de se procurer. Les details de cet exem- plaire qui sont peut-Stre uniques du point de vue bibli- ographlque, qui peuvent modifier une Image reproduite, ou qui peuvent exiger une modifications dans la m6th- ode normale de fllmage sont indiquds cl-dessous. I I Cokjured pages / Pages de couleur I I Pages damaged/ Pages endommagies I I Pages restored and/or laminated / Pages restaurees et/ou pellkaiiees r^ Pages discolo;;red, stained or foxed / Pages dScotorees, tachettes ou piquees n7\ Pages detached/ Pages ditachees r^l Showthrough/ Transparence I I Quality of print varies / ' — ' Quallte Inigale de I'impression I I Includes supplementary material / Comprend du materiel suppl^mentaire I I Pages wholly or partially obscured by errata ' — ' slips, tissues, etc., have been refllmed to ensure the best passible Image / Les pages totalement ou partiellement obscurcies par un feuillet d'errata, une pelure, etc., ont ete filmees i nouveau de fa9on k obtenir la mellleure image possible. I I Opposing pages with varying colouration or discolourations are filmed twice to ensure the best possible image / Les pages s'opposant ayant des colorations variables ou des decol- orations sont filmees deux fois afin d'obtenir la mellleur Image possible. D AddWonal comments / Commentalies supplementaites: This ittffl is f itintd at th* reduction ratio diedud balow/ Cc doeumant ast fitmi au taux de rMueliofl ifKHqui ei-dessous. 'OX 14X 18X Z2X »X XX 12X 1(X 20X 22X Tb* copy filmad hara hM baan raproduead thanks to tha ganaroslty of: National Library of Canada Tha imagaa appaaring hara ara iha bast quality possibia Gonsidaring tha condition snd lagibility of tha original copy and in kasping with tha filming contract spocifications. Original copios in printsd papsr eovars ara filmad beginning with tha front cover and anding on tha laat paga with a printad or illustratad imprsa- sion, or tha back eovar whan appropriata. All othar original eopiaa ara filmad beginning on tha first paga with a printad or illustratad Impraa- sien. and anding on tha last paga with a printad or illuatratad imprassion. The lost rsGordod frsma on asch microficha shall contain Iha symbol ^» Imaaning "CON- TINUED"), or tha symbol V Imaaning "END"), whiehavar applias. Maps, platas. charts, ate, may ba filmad at diffarant reduction ratios. Those too large to ba entirely included in one exposure sre filmed beginning in the upper left hand corner, left :o right and top to bottom, es many frames ss required. The following diagrams illustrsta the method: 1 2 3 1 2 4 5 L'Mamplair* lUmt fut raproduit grtct 1 la gtotreiiia da: Blbllothaqua natlonala du Canada La« imagaa luivania* oni M raproduitai avac la plua grand aoin. eompta lanu da la condition at do la nattata da raxamplaira lilma. at »n confermita avac laa condlljona du eontrat da filmaga. Laa axamplairaa originaux dont la couvanura an papiar aat Imprlmaa aont filmaa an commandant par la pramiar plat at an tarminant loit par la darnMra paga qui eomporta una amprainta d'Impraaaion ou d'illuatration, aoit par la tacond plat, aalon la eaa. Toua laa autraa axamplairaa originaux aont fllmte an eommanfant par la pramWra paga qui eomporta una amprainta d'impraaaien ou d'illuatration at an tarminant par la damitra paga qui eomporta una talla amprainta. Un daa aymboloa auivanta apparaltra aur la damiara imaga da chaqua microficha. salon la caa: la aymbeia — »aignifia "A SUIVRE". la aymbola ▼ aignifia "FIN". Laa cartaa, planchaa, tableaux, etc., pauvant itra filmto t daa uux da raduetion difftrania. Loraqua la document aat trop grand pour itra raproduit an un aeul elicha. il eat filma t partir da Tangle aup4riaur gauche, de gauche i droite. et de haut an baa, an pranant la nombre d'imaqaa nacaaaaira. Laa diagrammaa auivanta illuatrant la mathoda. 2 3 5 6 MKIOCOrT nSOWTION TBI GHAUT (ANSI ond ISO TESI CHADT No. J) I.I 1:25 III 1.4 |2J 2.2 ■10 1^ il.6 A APPLIED IIVVIGE In, 1G%3 East Main SlrHt Rochiiltr. Haw York 14609 U5A (7!6) 482 - 0300 - Phon. (716) 288- 5989 - Fo. ■',:\Z \'F S hipbuilding in Canada ^hQ Handicapsi and the Remedy Therefor Suggefted ,,;..-. /;-?^>- /V--*- -f y r'j r» V'J' N WT SHIPBUILDiNr. IN CANADA. THE HANDICAPS. AND THE RP.MEDY THEREFOR SUGGESTED. „ fl^?"/*"* Great Lakes and the St. Lawmnoe Hiver, there m now a fleet of vessels that wo.il.l carry about :i,m\m) ton, at one time there was curried last year al.out «(),(H)0,(KM) tons of western products Of this great fleet of vessels, less than three per cent of the this waterway canals and ai.ls to navigation. While the country .s growmg nch, and Canadian pr.xlucts west of and along this waterway are increasing very fast, the Canadian slii,- tonnage d.«s o"nlvt I,.","™ ';'" ''•' ""' "' ""' ™""'^>- '" '-' '» - "'"^"t 'he only industry of importance that is not protected properly 'J^.tf " I "''"'[ 'i^*,"' "•'" «'*'" '■*■''' "■"*'"■ '^"''■•™- "' the United SM^;,M •" ' ^'"P'""1'""K f"^ 'he lake trade are fully protected. Shipbuilding ,s in a wonderfnl state of pros,«rity, there being fully thirty times as much in progress as on the Canadian side. Com- pare the annual report of the largest shipyard in Canada with the annua , „ .^e largest shipyard in the United States on he Great Lakes, and it will be seen that the first is struggling along with httle or no profit, while the other has had .he freaLt pLible prosperity for the past seven years. possioie On the American side of the upper lakes, last year and this year including ve^ls now under contract to build, more th .n one hundred of"^ V^L ""^ ''° *" "'" '■*' '""«' ""h " ^-^-O-i-g capacity from 8,000 to 14,000 tons each, and costing nearlv $hm,^m will e launched As this great fleet come, into use, there will 1« a lot of old small vessels to sell to Canadians and nrf «rr °' "*", '"•'^ '"^^ ^ <"^"'"""' »» '-oth Canadian and United States vessels, that is, products from one side to the other. The carrying of cargo coastwise, or from a port in the United State, to mother port inth at country i« P™^"^ • '» ^ ^. fined ab«,lutely to their own ve«eU, wh.l. m tl,e C."'f ''" "»f„ wi«, trad, the BritiA riup enjoy, the «.m. priv.lege «. the C»nad »n^ The .oartwi., tr«i. of the United State, in tlu lake "P"" « '"»^' than in Cana<la, yet Canadian product, and trade ar« U":""'"* s^Ta.; that n..n'y United State. ve«,l. a«, requ.red o ca-ry C»^ dian grain and other producto to American port, that mi^t go out through Canadian port, if there we™ more Canadian .h.p. to ■""^lle'united State. Government protect. iU .hipbuilding on the Great Lalce. a. follow.: Any ve»el built n ""y .<'*';''' T"^ cannot be regi.tered in the United State.. All repau. t. a Urn ted State, hip made in Canada mu.t pay fifty r,'^"^'*''^'.' «tn? drydoclc charge., when rf>e arrive, in the United State. At pre«>nt ?h^ri. a Bir^fo,« Cong™- to prohibit «.y ve»el repair, m a foreign port, at any rate only enou^ to carry the ve«el to a u3 mft^P port In the coaatwi* trade this fu y protecU the Trttag v«^rbecau» no foreign-built ve«el U a lowed to com- TtT ^th W and it al«. protect, the d.ip-builCer becau« he Cw. the ne^ d>ip mu.t be conrtructed in the United States, ateo th ™pl which,'n dull time., may L3.P to keep hi. y.^ bu.y until new vewel. are wanted. In thi. way both the .hipbuilder !^ ttoA^wner are protected. The Canadian-built ve-el^ ^her oo-operetor (the Britid. tramp,, and the Canadian-owned Uni^ Tt^built .^y. may go to the United Stat » for repair., and come back to Canada without paying any duty on «ich repairs, " '^^tte" 3 buiit in Canada appear, on the United Stat«. ReBister, while there are now on 'he Canadian Regiater (Lirt of tha? were built in the United State., also 68 large rtoel rteamer. that were built in Great Britain. About three-fourths of the above tonnage i. domg busmen on the G™at Lake, .nd the St. Lawrence, and in addition there is a fleet of small Britirfi tramp steamer., which have the same privileges as the Canadian-built ship in doing a coastwi* trade m Canada, mostly on the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence. I Thmie Hritinh tramp iiteiiini-m are nut enrolled in the Ciiniuliitn "hipping Lint, and when trade on the fjreat F,8k'it in very dull, they can go back to the ocean, aa they are all fittcJ with salt water applianceR for their iKiilerii. They are UHUally old itaaineni, too ■mall for the tr»<le they were o Ipnally intende<i for. It HiiitH their ownem therefore to ni»h them in v.^mn the ('ana<tlan lake trade when it is good, and thiw aiwint in cutting freights for the Canadian- built ship. Up to the present time there are only alxiut tv live ('Bnuillan- built steel vessels in operation, and four or five undir contract to build, while in the lake region of the Unite<l States there are thirty times as many unde: construction and contract. When a Canadian shipping firm wants a ship they will ask one of the Canadian shipyards for a price, and as the Canadian yanl is paying about the san • wages to its men as are paid in the United States, and the material costs a little more than in the Ui.ited States, it hat. to ask about the same price. If the Canadian shifi- owner be not satisfied he then asks for a prico in Great Hriiain, where labour costs much less. The Canadian shipyard knowing thii, if it desires the contract, must offer to build the ship for little or no profit, otherwise the order will be placed in Great liritain. Often this has he-a done. Vessels have been built in Rngland and cut in two at Quebec, or Montreal. Theyaretlion taken up the canals in two halves an^' nut togethei again it some yard in the United State-s. Another source of competition may arise from the puruhase of old vessels built in the United States on which a small duty only is paid. Or still another is the hire or purchase of British tramp steamers, all of which work against the Canadian shipyard. In building a Canadian steel ship, about one-third the cost is in the ron and steel as it comec from the mills, and the other two- thirds ,s labour. May we not 'ook forwa.-d ij the time when all the material will be madejn Canada as cheaply as in Great Britain, or elsewhere. When ont considers the cc of maintaining the aids to navi- gation from the entrcnce to the gulf of the St. Lawrence to the International Boundary line on Lake Superior, in Minnesota, it is obvious that a much larger fieet of vessels should belong to the country wii pays the cost of these improvemer-'s. The pwiwc.n o( ii, viKiiticiti on the (Iroat I.nkfM kihI Si. I.nwn'ii('c KiviT ia alKiut iwvpn niiintlin. Thrre «n> many iiarrnw rhannftlH ami r "ky iMiltoiii!!, aki iiiiicli think wriilhrr, «<> (liiit thi> ilanRvr i>f iKittom (lanm)»^ to the »hip is nrral Thit has hroiinhf aUait a Biwl vcHM'l c'Mpci'ially ndaptiKl fcir the traili-, whirh pan ciiin net im)titM that olil anil uiiHttml vpwielH caiinot do. A iiKKlern nlwl vp.-i.spI for tra<le on tho H|)|ior LakoH anil tlm 8t- Ijiwrcni'i- Hivcr i.s liiiijt with a iloiihle holtoni, with a iloplh Iwtwn-n themi iMiltiKiM of fro'n thirc to nix fn-t. Thw fnalilc.i the rarrii'Hf of a larun watiT hallast wlii-n nmnn wilhonl cargit. Shoiilil a vow«>l Krounil while oarryinx watn- ImllnKt, it ran lie piiin|M-i| out atul the vi-Hnvl n-leawil, or if the veiwel, light or loaileil, «lrikeH a n>rky bottom anil niplureM the lower iHittimi, the up|)er Ixittom will .•roteet the whip anil rarKo. ThiM kinil of navinaliim leailH up to a HyBteni of taking inileh ri«k, anil conneiiiient ly wmie great tM)ttnm ilanuiKCs arc the result. Soniet inien the lower, or outer holtoni, in ruplureil anil flattened up aRninut the inner iMittoin without damage to earRo. Much ilaniage.s umially range from JS.tKH) to I5»),(HK) eaeh. Then add to thi.s the damaced from wrerkn and I'ollisiionH, whifh may lie even niueh gri-ater. I,a«t year there were i|uit« a nunilier of thene that would reach »1IM»,(KI0 eaeh, and in either cane sucli ilamageH must lie repaired at some yard where they have a gooil dry-dock and nil the miHlern appliances, such u» the lieat 8teel Mhipliuilding machinery and tools, machine and liiiilcr shops, foundries, forges, cranes, derricks, and the latest improve<l air tools, and plenty of power to drive them all. A well equipped yard must have in stuck from »,V),0(Ki to $llK),n(K) worth of iron r .d steel to draw from, al,io a lot of wooil-working machinery, and such lumlier and timber as is rcquireil to carry on the business. There must also be a full staff of superintendents and skilled men in all departments; there munt lie available at least 30() men to work night or day to make all kinds of repairs; a staff of officers, and from 3m to 1,000 employees. As the running expense of a vessel is so great , the owner only insuring against repairs and not against loss of time to tne vessel, liecause of the short season, each day lost in repairs is about equal to two days. Hence the owner of the damaged vessel will send her to u place wh"re they have all the requisite facilities to do the work night or day as required. Fi>r oxninpli*, niipiHMinx iliinmitM ilonp (in the l.iikpx ti> n Cnnn- iliaii-lmilt vpwwl, Hrilixh vetuiel, or n CanitHinn vphm*! hiiilt in thp I'nitiHl Stiitfi'. If thin iliiniiiKP ix of ii rhtriirlpr tliiil would inili- I'lttn from SA.IHMI to tno.lKMI, whirli in A ponii>"in ni'rtirn>nrr , the Ciinailiun ownor, or hix rpprrHPn; *ivo is imiiuMliatoly itp|>rotr*h''d liy an uKPnt i>f mip of the KliipyanU in the ( nit«l Stat(>«, Thin ap>iit givcN him ouch iii<hi('<*mpniH that thr Canadian in oflp't trmptrd to Ro th<<r<> for repairs, (.ant xcnMin, up to OitoU'r Int, tllNMNK) of HUrh repair^ had l>eon mndn, white not $t,(NN) of repairs to a United HtatcH vesM-l have Iwen niaile in Canadu, allhouKh in thin rnuntry there are plantn junt an ffiuid and an ailecjun niipply of nicilled lalMiur an ran Iw found in I'liiied States waters. .My own conviction is that unlcsH sufTicint protection is gi.en to the Cnnailiaii shi|i- IxiildihK and re)iair yards immediately, they may have to ((o out of laisinesH altogether. There has lie' ■ no profit made hy the nhip- liuildinK firms in Canada for many vwirs, while, on the other hand, the industry has flourished with our neighbours. For the nine mo.iths ending on the 31st of March, MMI7, 'he total mail stihsidies and steamship subventions vote.l by i'arli.iment amount to $U,5S,757: the appropriations for ocean ind river ■*<'rvicc, (which arc really aiils to navigaticm) are 15(H)," i, while for the liKhthi.ise and const service for the nine months .u total is 11,046,- 150, or a grand total for the year of $4,67'i,>*99. If the steel ship- buildirig plants could get one-fourth of the amount that will go to the steamship companies alone, or $.3(H),00(I it would give suel boom to shipbuihling in Canaila that l)eforc many years have pa& away a first class fleet of Canadian lake vessels would Iw in i*- istenco, and Canadian produce would be almost entirely carried in Canadian bottoms. The encouragement of lake shipping would reduce the cost of transportation both east and west. The (iovernment has aided the railways by enormous land grants and cash subsidies, yet this important link, the common fresh water carrier, that anyone can own ond operate, and is the free agent to carry cheaply in con- nection with the railroads or in oppo 'tion to them, has to struggle along without assistance. United States lake vessels are now getting the full advantage of the Canadian canals, light-houses, beacons, and improvements to the waterways generally at an ex- penditure of hundreds of thouaands of dollsrs annually. The United States lake shipping is getting the best of it in our coastwise trade and is flourishing at the expense of the Canadian people. Has not the time arrived when the Government and the Parliament of Canada should endeavour to meet the situation by affording such generous assistance to tha steel shipbuilding industry in the Dominion, as will enable it to face existing competition, and furnish employment at good wages to thousands of skilled Canadian artisans? A bounty on steel shipbuilding would aid the struggling plants on the great lakes, and might lead to the establishment of new yards at Sydney or Halifax, St. John, Quebec, Vancouver or Victoria. ALEXANDER McDOUGALL. Niagara Falls, Ont., March 13th, 1907. .